Type I Diabetes (TID)

Type I Diabetes (TID)

Diabetes is a disease in which the body cannot properly regulate its blood glucose (blood sugar) levels. There are two major types of diabetes: type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). T1DM, which accounts for about 5-10% of diabetes, is caused by a loss or malfunction of the insulin producing cells, called pancreatic beta cells. Damage to beta cells results in an absence or insufficient production of insulin produced by the body. Most cases of T1DM have a basis in autoimmunity; the immune system mistakenly identifies insulin and/or beta cells as being foreign. In T1DM, the immune system targets and ultimately destroys the beta cells, resulting in an absence of insulin and the subsequent diagnosis of diabetes. It is speculated that in T1DM, the regulatory T cells are unable to control cytotoxic T cells, which are directed against self proteins.

(pro)insulin, a suspected autoantigen

(pro)insulin, a suspected autoantigen

Most cases of T1DM have a basis in autoimmunity; the immune system mistakenly identifies insulin and/or beta cells as being foreign. In T1DM, the immune system targets and ultimately destroys the beta cells, resulting in an absence of insulin and the subsequent diagnosis of diabetes. It is speculated that in T1DM, the regulatory T cells are unable to control cytotoxic T cells, which are directed against self proteins.

Treatment goal

Current only therapy is multiple daily injections of insulin for life-long to compensate damaged insulin producing system. Islet transplantation is another cure but as long as impaired autoimmunity exists, the transplanted cells are attacked by autoimmunity again.

Therefore, it is important to retract the autoimmunity to prevent and treat type 1 diabetes. One of the best options is to induce regulatory T cells (Tregs) which represent a specific T cell subset and plays a key role in inducing and maintaining immunological tolerance to insulin.

RGI-3100

RGI-3100 is a different formulation of alpha-GalCer that REGiMMUNE is developing as a potential treatment for type 1 diabetes mellitus (TIDM), which results from autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. Also known as insulin dependent or juvenile diabetes, the only current treatment for TDIM is injection of insulin, which must be administered lifelong. Several new approaches to treatment are in research by others, including islet transplantation. RGI-3100 is in preclinical development as an alternative approach to T1DM treatment with insulin. It is expected to protect beta cells by restoring normal immunity in people with T1DM by inducing Treg.